VACCINE POLICY ISSUES Syllabus
Daniel Salmon, PhD, MPH
Department of International Health & Health, Behavior and Society
Deputy Director of Institute for Vaccine Safety
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Andrea R. Sutherland, MD, MSc, MPH
Department of International Health
Johns Hopkins School of Public Health
International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC)
TA: Amber Bickford Cox, MPH
PhD student, Department of International Health
Please contact the Teaching Assistant with any questions or comments about the course
Course Learning Objectives
Upon successfully completing this course, students will be able to:
- Assess a vaccine policy issue including determination of its health impacts
- Describe vaccine policy stakeholders, evaluate their positions on a variety of vaccine policy issues, and assess the ability of these stakeholders to influence vaccine policy (e.g., their political capital).
- Formulate vaccine policy alternatives and evaluate the impact of these policy alternatives on a health issue
- Construct tools to assess and/or promote vaccine policy including a policy analysis
This course examines current domestic and international policy issues in vaccine research, development, manufacturing, supply, licensure and utilization. Topics include: priorities for funding vaccine research and development, ensuring an adequate supply of safe and effective vaccines, vaccine financing and new vaccine introduction decision-making, and the ethics of compulsory vaccination. The class emphasizes the identification of important vaccine policy issues and the formulation and evaluation of policies to address these issues. The roles, responsibilities, and policy positions of key immunization stakeholders via guest lectures by a wide array of experts who have worked for/with important vaccine stakeholders (e.g., UNICEF, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, US Government, and GAVI Alliance) are presented. Students will learn skills including developing a Policy Paper. Readings include relevant scientific papers and publications of U.S. and international agencies.
Lectures will focus on
- How different institutions and stakeholders form vaccine policies
- How policy decisions made throughout the continuum of vaccine research, development, licensure, manufacturing, purchase and utilization affect policy decisions in other areas.
- Compare and contrast the processes of decision-making in US domestic vs. international vaccine policy.
- Identify critical levers that can be used to influence vaccine policy at different levels.
Intended AudienceStudents in the MPH, MSPH, and PhD programs with both international and domestic vaccine policy interests
Methods of Assessment
Student evaluation based on class and forum participation, and a group policy analysis paper.
Student evaluation is based on:
- Class participation (attendance, participation in discussions) (15%)
- Policy Papers (85%):
- Section A: 15%
- Section B: 15%
- Section C: 15%
- Final Submission: 40%
Class Participation: Class participation include attendance and participation in class discussion
Policy Paper: Students may work individually or in pairs to write a Policy Analysis Paper, under 4,000 words.
For Policy Paper instructions, see Online Library.
Prerequisites223.662, Vaccine Development and Application
Additional Faculty Notes:
Recommended and/or required readings are listed in the syllabus for each session. Students are expected to read the assigned materials prior to the class they are assigned.
Websites listed below constitute required readings, please scan through these sites.
Please see the course Session for a full list of dates and items for this course.
Academic Ethics Code
Students enrolled in the Bloomberg School of Public Health of The Johns Hopkins University assume an obligation to conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the University's mission as an institution of higher education. A student is obligated to refrain from acts which he or she knows, or under the circumstances has reason to know, impair the academic integrity of the University. Violations of academic integrity include, but are not limited to: cheating; plagiarism; knowingly furnishing false information to any agent of the University for inclusion in the academic record; violation of the rights and welfare of animal or human subjects in research; and misconduct as a member of either School or University committees or recognized groups or organizations.
It is the obligation of students to become familiar with the rules. If the idea is not yours, cite the source. If the language is not yours, use quotation marks.
Angry Professor’s Guide to Plagiarism: http://gentlemansc.blogspot.com/2011/08/more-you-know.html
Course topicsThe course is divided into a series of lectures provided by various experts in the field of Vaccine Policy. Speakers will discuss the roles of various organizations in the fields of vaccine research, development, and policy formulation. Presentations will be informal, and class discussion is encouraged.
Assignment Descriptions and Guidelines
Policy Paper Topic
Wednesday January 29, 2014, 11:59pm
Policy Paper Part A
Wednesday February 5, 2014, 11:59pm
Policy Paper Part B
Wednesday February 19, 2014, 11:59pm
Policy Paper Part C
Wednesday March 5, 2014, 11:59pm
Policy Paper Final Submission
Sunday, March 23, 2014, 11:59pm
The course is divided into a series of lectures provided by various experts in the field of Vaccine Policy. The speakers will discuss the roles of various international and domestic organizations in the continuum of vaccine research, development, and policy formulation. Presentations will be informal and class discussions are encouraged.
Attendance will be recorded via a sign-in sheet. It is the student’s responsibility to sign the sheet each class session. Two unexcused absences are permitted. Absences beyond two will impact the class participation grade.
Late Submission/Make-up Policy
- Late papers will be deducted one letter grade increment for every 24 hours late
- Ex: If a student would have received an A- on the paper but turned it in less than 24 hours late, the student will receive a B+ on the paper. If the paper was submitted between 24 and less than 48 hours late the student will receive a B on the paper.
Plagiarism Software Turnitin
Students agree that by taking this course all required papers may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to Turnitin.com for the detection of plagiarism. All submitted papers will be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of such papers. Use of the Turnitin.com service is subject to the Usage Policy posted on the Turnitin.com site
General Recommended Background Reading
- Nelson EAS, et al (Eds.). The role of National Advisory Committees in Supporting Evidence-Based Decision Making: National Immunisation Programs. Vaccine. 2010, 28(Supplement 1).
- Wilson, P. Giving developing countries the best shot: an overview of vaccine access R & D. 2010. MSF and OXFAM.
- World Health Organization. Vaccine Introduction Guidelines: adding a vaccine to a national immunization programme. WHO/IVB/05.18. 2005.
- World Health Organization Expert Working Group on Research and Development Financing. Research and Development: Coordination and Financing. 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Muraskin W. The Politics of International Health. Albany: State University of New York Press. 1998.
- WHO, UNICEF, World Bank. State of the world’s vaccines and immunization, 3rd ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009
- Bryson M, Duclos P, Jolly A. Global immunization policy making processes. Health Policy 2010; 96(2): 154-9.
- CEPA and Applied Strategies. GAVI Second Evaluation Report. 2010.
- Duclos P, Okwo-Bele JM, Gacic-Dobo M, Cherian T. Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future. BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2009; 9 Suppl 1: S2.
- Eldis. Health systems resource guide. webpage. http://www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/health-systems
- GAVI. Second evaluation report webpage. 2010. http://www.gavialliance.org/results/evaluations/gavi-second-evaluation-report/
- Hayford K, Privor-Dumm L, Levine O. Improving access to essential medicines through public-private partnerships. 2011; International Vaccine Access Center publication.
- Kamara L, Milstien JB, Patyna M, Lydon P, Levin A, Brenzel L. Strategies for financial sustainability of immunization programs: a review of the strategies from 50 national immunization program financial sustainability plans. Vaccine 2008; 26(51): 6717-26.
- Kennedy R, Luthra K, Topal C. A new global framework to bring vaccine pricing into the 21st century: A balancing act. An interview with Ambassador Mark Dybul. 2011. The National Bureau of Asian Research Center for Health and Aging. http://www.nbr.org/downloads/pdfs/CHA/NBR_Dybul_interview_08312011.pdf
- Lydon P, Beyai PL, Chaudhri I, Cakmak N, Satoulou A, Dumolard L. Government financing for health and specific national budget lines: the case of vaccines and immunization. Vaccine 2008; 26(51): 6727-34.
- Lydon P, Levine R, Makinen M, Brenzel L, Mitchell V, Milstien JB, et al. Introducing new vaccines in the poorest countries: what did we learn from the GAVI experience with financial sustainability? Vaccine 2008; 26(51): 6706-16.
- Hawkes, N. “Irrelevant” WHO outpaced by younger rivals. British Medical Journal 2011; 343:d5012
- Milstien J, Kamara L, Lydon P, Mitchell V, Landry S. The GAVI Financing Task Force: One model of partner collaboration. Vaccine. 2008; 26 (51): 6699 – 6705.
- Smith, Jean Clare. The structure, role, and procedures of the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Vaccine. 2010, 28(Supplement 1): A68-75.
- PDP Access Steering Committee. Timing access: A study of PDP access activities and timelines. 2011. PDP Access. http://pdpaccess.org/downloads/projects/full-papers/PDP%20Access%20Timelines%20Paper.pdf
- PDP Access Steering Committee. Timing access dependency table. 2011. PDP Access.
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